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In the context of computer networking, frame relay consists of an efficient data transmission technique used to send digital information. It is a message forwarding “relay race” like system in which data packets, called frames, are passed from one or many start-points to one or many destinations via a series of intermediate node points.
Network providers commonly implement frame relay for voice and data as an encapsulation technique, used between local area networks (LANs) over a wide area network (WAN). Each end-user gets a private line (or leased line) to a frame-relay node. The frame-relay network handles the transmission over a frequently-changing path transparent to all end-users.
With the advent of MPLS, VPN and dedicated broadband services such as cable modem and DSL, the end may loom for the frame relay protocol and encapsulation. However many rural areas remain lacking DSL and cable modem services. In such cases the least expensive type of “always-on” connection remains a 64-kbit/s frame-relay line. Thus a retail chain, for instance, may use frame relay for connecting rural stores into their corporate WAN.
X.25 is an ITU-T standard network layer protocol for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication. An X.25 WAN consists of packet-switching exchange (PSE) nodes as the networking hardware, and leased lines, Plain old telephone service connections or ISDN connections as physical links. X.25 is part of the OSI protocol suite, a family of protocols that was used especially during the 1980s by telecommunications companies and in financial transaction systems such as automated teller machines. X.25 is today to a large extent replaced by less complex protocols, especially the Internet protocol (IP) although some telephone operators offer X.25-based communication via the signalling (D) channel of ISDN lines.
How do Ethernet and token ring networks compare?
Token Ring is single access, meaning there is only one token. Thus,
at any given time only one station is able to use the LAN. Ethernet
is a shared access medium, where all stations have equal access to
the network at the same time.
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